The land for the monastery at Ripon was donated by King Aldfrith, who was the sub-king of the area under his father Oswig, King of Northumbria. To set it up, Aldfrith invited a group of monks from the Celtic monastery of Melrose, which at that time lay within the Kingdom of Northumbria. The Celtic community arrived in the mid-650s, but only a few years later Aldfrith changed his allegiance to the Roman tradition, and gave the land to Wilfrid, who established a community following the Rule of St Benedict. According to Wilfrid’s biographer, Stephen of Ripon, this was the first Benedictine monastery in England. The Celtic monks returned to Melrose. The new community, under Wilfrid as abbot, quickly became a centre of learning and Christian mission, and was glorified by Wilfrid’s stone church, which he completed c. 672. Monastic life was disrupted by the Viking invasions and the church — but not the crypt — was destroyed, although it was rebuilt before the Norman Conquest, at which time a new and very grand church was built, carefully incorporating Wilfrid’s crypt. We still have the crypt, but what we see above ground is from the Norman period and later.